An operating System (OS) is an interface between computer Hardware and the user. An operating system is software which performs all the basic tasks like file management, memory management, process management, handling input and output, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers.
An operating system is software that enables applications to interact with a computer’s hardware. The software that contains the core components of the operating system is called the kernel.
The primary purposes of an Operating System are to enable applications (software) to interact with a computer’s hardware and to manage a system’s hardware and software resources.
Why use an operating system?
An operating system brings powerful benefits to computer software and software development. Without an operating system, every application would need to include its own UI, as well as the comprehensive code needed to handle all low-level functionality of the underlying computer, such as disk storage, network interfaces and so on. Considering the vast array of underlying hardware available, this would vastly bloat the size of every application and make software development impractical.
Some popular Operating Systems
there are some popular Operating systems that are mostly used in Cyber Security and in other purposes.
- Arch Linux
- Red Hat Enterprise Linux
- Chrome OS
- IBM AIX
these are the popular operating systems that are mostly used by people. But we only discuss in this website Windows and Linux.
Windows Operating System
The Windows operating system, developed by Microsoft, is one of the most widely used and recognized operating systems. Windows has a long history dating back to the mid-1980s, and it has gone through numerous versions and updates.
Graphical User Interface (GUI): Windows is known for its user-friendly graphical interface, which includes a desktop environment with icons, windows, and a Start menu. Users can interact with the system using a mouse and keyboard.
and upcoming article we will explain and set up our lab for penetration testing.
Linux Operating System
Linux is an Open Source and community-developed Operating System that serves as the core component of numerous Linux distributions or “distros.” It was originally created by Linus Torvalds in 1991 and has since grown into a diverse and widely used family of operating systems.
Here are some key features and aspects of the Linux operating system:
- Open Source: Linux is distributed under various open-source licenses (most commonly the GNU General Public License) which means that its source code is freely available for anyone to view, modify, and distribute. This open nature has led to a community of developers and enthusiasts.
- Distributions: Linux is not just one operating system but a kernel that is packaged with other software components to create complete operating systems known as distributions or distros. Some popular Linux distributions include Ubuntu, Fedora, Debian, CentOS, and Arch Linux, each with its own characteristics and target audience.
- Multi-Platform: Linux is highly portable and can run on various hardware platforms, including x86, ARM, and more. This versatility makes it suitable for a wide range of devices, from servers and desktop computers to embedded systems and smartphones.
- Stability and Security: Linux is known for its stability and reliability, making it a preferred choice for servers and critical systems. Additionally, its robust security features and frequent updates contribute to its reputation for security.
- Command Line Interface (CLI): Linux provides a powerful command-line interface, which is favoured by many system administrators and developers for its efficiency and flexibility. However, it also offers graphical user interfaces (GUIs) like GNOME, KDE, and others for a more user-friendly experience.
- Package Management: Linux distributions typically include package managers that simplify the installation, updating, and removal of software packages. Common package managers include APT (used in Debian and Ubuntu) and RPM (used in Fedora and CentOS).
- Customization: Linux allows for extensive customization. Users can choose their desktop environments, window managers, themes, and software packages, tailoring the system to their specific needs and preferences.
- Community Support: Linux has a passionate and supportive user and developer community. Online forums, documentation, and community-driven resources are readily available to help users troubleshoot issues and learn about the system.
- Server and Data Center Usage: Linux is widely used in server environments due to its stability, security, and cost-effectiveness. Variants like CentOS, Ubuntu Server, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux are popular choices for hosting web servers, databases, and cloud-based services.
- Desktop Usage: While Linux has a smaller market share on the desktop compared to Windows and macOS, it is still used by millions of users worldwide. Linux distributions like Ubuntu and Linux Mint aim to provide user-friendly desktop experiences.
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